HUCAPP 2017 Abstracts


Area 1 - Agents and Human Interaction

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 9
Title:

Truly Social Robots - Understanding Human-Robot Interaction from the Perspective of Social Psychology

Authors:

Daniel Ullrich and Sarah Diefenbach

Abstract: Human-robot interaction (HRI) and especially social robots play an increasing role within the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Social robots are robots specifically designed to interact with humans, and already entered different domains such as healthcare, transportation, or care of the elderly. However, research and design still lack a profound theoretical basis, considering their role as social beings, and the psychological rules that apply to the interaction between humans and robots. The present paper underlines this claim by a list of central research questions and areas of relevance, and a summary of first results of own and others’ research. Finally, we suggest a research agenda and dimensions for a framework for social robot interaction, which truly accounts for their social nature and relevant theory from social psychology.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 8
Title:

Optimized Limited Memory and Warping LCSS for Online Gesture Recognition or Overlearning?

Authors:

Baptiste Lemarcis, Valère Plantevin, Bruno Bouchard and Bob-Antoine-Jerry Ménélas

Abstract: In this paper, we present and evaluate a new algorithm for online gesture recognition in noisy streams. This technique relies upon the proposed LM-WLCSS (Limited Memory and Warping LCSS) algorithm that has demonstrated its efficiency on gesture recognition. This new method involves a quantization step (via the KMeans clustering algorithm). This transforms new data to a finite set. In this way, each new sample can be compared to several templates (one per class) and gestures are rejected based on a previously trained rejection threshold. Then, an algorithm, called SearchMax, find a local maximum within a sliding window and output whether or not the gesture has been recognized. In order to resolve conflicts that may occur, another classifier could be completed. As the K-Means clustering algorithm, needs to be initialized with the number of clusters to create, we also introduce a straightforward optimization process. Such an operation also optimizes the window size for the SearchMax algorithm. In order to demonstrate the robustness of our algorithm, an experiment has been performed over two different data sets. However, results on tested data sets are only accurate when training data are used as test data. This may be due to the fact that the method is in an overlearning state.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Socially Acceptable Behaviour for Robots Approaching Humans using an Adaptable Personal Space

Authors:

Kasper Camillus Jeppesen, Leon Bodenhagen and Norbert Krüger

Abstract: In this paper a new adaptable model of the personal space is proposed. This model takes into account the position of a persons hands aiming to facilitate interactions with the human while maintaining an appropriate social distance during the approach. This personal space model has been used as a cost function in the path planning algorithm Transition-based Rapidly exploring Random Trees. It allows users to influence the robot’s generated approach at the planning stage by varying their body and hand positions. Results from an online survey, where participants were shown different simulated approach behaviours, indicate that the model performs well when it comes to distance regulation and how close the robot comes during the approach. An interesting discovery from the survey is that the maintenance of eye contact, i.e. the robot keeping oriented towards the person during the approach, was positively associated with both the closeness of the robot during movement and judging the intentions of the robot for unaware users.

Paper Nr: 22
Title:

The Benefits of Considering Psychological Reactance as Users’ Personality Trait in HCI Research - Profiling Users with Hong’s Psychological Reactance Scale

Authors:

Patrick Ehrenbrink

Abstract: This paper argues for considering psychological reactance as a personality trait as an aspect for user models in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). It is pointed out that with increasing human-likeness of services, such as intelligent personal assistants, phenomena from human-human interaction are becoming more important in the field of HCI, as well. The concept and means of measuring psychological reactance are explained. Furthermore, methods for adapting to different levels of trait reactance are proposed and discussed.

Area 2 - Interaction Techniques and Devices

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

Using Constraint Solver for 3D Layout Assistance in Human-scale Virtual Environment

Authors:

Marouene Kefi, Paul Richard, Thuong Hoang, Takehiko Yamaguchi and Vincent Barichard

Abstract: This paper proposes a combination of virtual reality (VR) and constraint programming (CP) to develop an efficient system that will assist users when performing 3D layout tasks in a virtual environment. We conducted an experimental study to investigate the extent to which the solver’s assistance affects user performance in 3D-layout tasks. Volunteer participants were instructed to layout a generic 3D scene which was displayed on a large-scale rear-projected screen. Results showed that the solver provided significant assistance in both simple and complex tasks. The participants performed the layout tasks more accurately and in significantly less time when the constraint solver was used. Most of the subjects reported that the solver was useful in completing the layout tasks and they were generally satisfied by the proposed solution. However, it was observed that some subjects had difficulty in interacting with the solver, especially during the complex tasks.

Paper Nr: 12
Title:

Comparing Usability of User Interfaces for Robotic Telepresence

Authors:

Federica Bazzano, Fabrizio Lamberti, Andrea Sanna, Gianluca Paravati and Marco Gaspardone

Abstract: In the last years, robotic telepresence solutions have received a significant attention from both the commercial and academic worlds, due to their ability to allow people to feel physically present at a remote place and move in it. Operating a mobile robot with some autonomous capabilities from distance can enable a wide range of mass-market applications, encompassing teleconferencing, virtual tourism, etc. In these scenarios, the possibility to interact with the robot in a natural way becomes of crucial importance. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through a comparative analysis, the usability of two major approaches used today for controlling telepresence robots, i.e., keyboard and point-and-click video navigation. A control system featuring the above interfaces plus a combination of the two has been developed, and applied to the operation of a prototype telepresence robot in an office scenario. The system additionally includes functionalities found in many research and industry solutions, like map-based localization and “augmented” navigation. Then, a user study has been performed to assess the usability of the various control modalities for the execution of some navigation tasks in the considered context. The study provided precious indications to be possibly exploited for guiding next developments in the field.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 3
Title:

Virtual Reality Techniques for 3D Data-Warehouse Exploration

Authors:

Hamza Hamdi, Eulalie Verhulst and Paul Richard

Abstract: This paper focuses on the evaluation of virtual reality (VR) interaction techniques for exploration of data warehouse (DW). The experimental DW involves hierarchical levels and contains information about customers profiles and related purchase items. A user study has been carried out to compare two navigation and selection techniques. Sixteen volunteers were instructed to explore the DW and look for information using the interaction techniques, involving either a single WiimoteTM (monomanual) or both WiimoteTM and NunchuckTM (bimanual). Results indicated that the bimanual interaction technique is more efficient in terms of speed and error rate. Moreover, most of the participants preferred the bimanual interaction technique and found it more appropriate for the exploration task. We also observed that males were faster and made less errors than females for both interaction techniques.

Paper Nr: 4
Title:

Interaction Challenges in the Development of a Fire Warden VR Training System using a HMD

Authors:

Helen V. Diez, Aitor Moreno and Alejandro Garcia-Alonso

Abstract: This paper presents challenges encountered when interacting with 3D environments by means of Virtual Reality devices in a seated position. A use case has been devised and developed to support this work: a fire warden virtual training system. The users interact with the virtual environment with a combination of a Head- Mounted Display and other assisting devices to complement the virtual experience (keyboard, gamepad, leap motion). This work points out the benefits achieved using virtual reality in this environment and it exposes the limitations experimented by humans in such situations. With the knowledge gathered with these experiments this paper proposes interaction techniques to overcome them.

Paper Nr: 7
Title:

ToMMI - A Software Library for Multiplatform Tangible Mobile Interaction

Authors:

Francesco Strada and Andrea Bottino

Abstract: In this paper we present ToMMI (TOkens for Multiplatform tangible Mobile Interaction), a software library capable of supporting both tangible and multi-touch interaction on mobile devices. ToMMI exploits 3D printed tokens that can be recognized and tracked on devices equipped with commercial capacitive displays. Results shows that the computational core of ToMMI is lightweight and can extract token information in less than a millisecond. Furthermore, the library has an intuitive interface, which facilitates its use, and it is based on a portable framework that guarantees the deployment of any application based on it on a plethora of different smartphones and tablets. We also report that ToMMI code is available, open source, for the research community.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

Design of a Bilaterally Asymmetric Pedaling Machine and its Measuring System for Medical Rehabilitation

Authors:

Jinhua She, Fajian Wu, Hiroshi Hashimoto, Toshihiro Mita and Min Wu

Abstract: Most commercially available rehabilitation machines are bilateral symmetric. This makes it difficult to use for people with lower-limb injuries. This paper explains the design of a bilaterally asymmetric pedaling machine and its measuring system to solve this problem. Pedaling angles, strokes, and force of this machine can easily be adjusted independently for the left and right legs. Pedaling force and strokes, heart rate, and electromyogram (EMS) signals of walking muscles are recorded using a measuring system. This ensures the interaction between lower-limb exercises, and the computer-based supervision and control of medical rehabilitation. A prototype of a half model of the machine was built. Preliminary tests for the basic functions were carried out and demonstrated the validity of the machine and the measuring system.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

Using Virtual Reality Techniques to Study Cognitive Processes in Car Driving Activity

Authors:

Emmanuelle Ménétrier, Paul Richard, Vincent Boucher and Christophe Boujon

Abstract: A central question in cognitive sciences is how behaviors adapted to the situations encountered are produced. This question can be addressed in different ways and often requires the researcher to choose between highly controlled and standardized laboratory situations (commonly referred to as artificial settings) and studies undertaken in natural settings which may be more realistic, but cannot be controlled as required by a rigorous scientific approach. Using car driving as an example, our study will show how virtual reality (VR) offers a compromise between these two alternatives. Indeed, VR can simulate controlled immersive environments that offer different levels of realism. Moreover, VR makes it possible to implement different devices. For instance, VR enables researchers to analyze oculomotor behavior, which is fundamental in the field of car driving and is considered an indicator of attentional deployment. The work presented in this paper is based on a car driving simulator currently under development and aimed at studying the cognitive processes involved in car driving such as attentional processes and anticipatory mechanisms.

Area 3 - Theories, Models and User Evaluation

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 1
Title:

Utilization of Audio Guide for Enhancing Museum Experience - Relationships between Visitors’ Eye Movements, Audio Guide Contents, and the Levels of Contentment

Authors:

Kazumi Egawa and Muneo Kitajima

Abstract: Museums provide the opportunities of acquiring knowledge concerning artistic, cultural, historical or scientific interest through a large number of displays. However, even if those masterpieces are visually accessible to all the visitors, the background of these works of art is not necessarily acquired because the visitors do not have enough knowledge to fully appreciate them. Audio guide is a commonly used tool to bridge this gap. The purpose of this study is to gain understandings of relationships between visitors’ eye movements for acquiring information by seeing, the contents of the audio guide that should help them to understand the objects by hearing, and the levels of contentment from the museum experience. This paper reports the results of an eye tracking experiment in which nineteen participants were asked to appreciate a variety of pictures with or without audio guide, to fill in a questionnaire concerning subjective feelings, and to attend a follow-up interview session. It is found that the participants could be classified into four categories, suggesting an effective way of providing audio guide.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

Usability Testing of a School Website using Qualitative Approach

Authors:

Uttam Kokil and Sandra Scott

Abstract: The purpose of a school website is to provide pertinent information to parents and prospective site visitors. A qualitative method was adopted to conduct a usability study to explore how parents interact with an elementary school website in the USA. While the site yielded high ratings in terms of its visual appeal, the usability test uncovered issues compromising its usefulness. Participants cited deficiencies in terms of poor organization of information, and text labels not reflective of the contents, resulting in tedious navigation and unsuccessful searches. Recommendations were made for site improvements with the goal to eliminate usability issues, to make the site more efficient and effective for users.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

Understanding Relationships between Reading Behavior and Difficulty Level of Musical Score based on Cognitive-behavioral Science - Competency Level Evaluation via Musical Score Reading Processes

Authors:

Katsuko T. Nakahira and Muneo Kitajima

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to propose a method to understand relationships between reading behavior and the level of difficulty of a musical score. The method consists of the following three steps: (1) construct a model for musical score reading behavior based on the cognitive-behavioral science approach, (2) estimate the musical score reading behavior in terms of the degree of “smoothness” for measuring the degree of matching of the musical score with the level of competency of the student, and (3) conduct an examination from the point of reasonability. The model has three components: objects, perceptual-cognitive-motor processes, and memory. The model suggested that the most critical for success is that a person is able to retrieve relevant information from long-term memory and the number of objects, k, he/she can acquire within a unit field of view. It would depend on the amount of experience studying music, talent, and so on. Individual differences should appear in the mean and/or median duration times of the field of view, tMean/tMed , which should be proportional to the latencies of the processes of searching for relevant information from long-term memory. The model-based evaluation is done by taking into account the following five parameters: the number of notes, rests, accidentals, meter/velocity, and the other musical symbols. A concrete configuration of the parameter values determines the ideal cognitive duration time tcog per field of view for each k. With tcog, k, tMean, tMed , we do step (3). The verification indicates that the proposed estimation procedure should be effective to evaluate the level of difficulty of musical scores perceived by an individual person.

Paper Nr: 5
Title:

Foundations of Map-based Web Applications - A Survey of the Use, Limits and Opportunities Offered by Digital Maps

Authors:

Alessio Antonini, Guido Boella, Stefania Buccoliero, Lucia Lupi and Claudio Schifanella

Abstract: Traditional maps are one of the oldest way to express relevant information on a locality base, as synthetic representations of reality. The traditional visualization theory of maps and the related principles used to structure spatial information can inspire the modelling of new solutions in the field of information management in web application. But, the fast and generalized spreading of digital maps, and the related production of geo-localized social media is not followed by a deep integration of map in web applications, preventing the effectiveness of digital maps in solving pressing issues like aggregation, retrieval, recommendation and presentation of spatial media. Through the analysis of key concepts of maps, this contribution addresses the foundations of map-based applications, discussing the limits of current approaches and introducing new opportunities based on deep integration between maps and applications.

Paper Nr: 17
Title:

Enabling Focused Software Quality Assurance in Agile Software Development Processes for Mobile Applications using Text and Usage Mining Methods

Authors:

Michael Bauer, Kateryna Sergieieva and Gerrit Meixner

Abstract: The acceptance of mobile applications that support services, such as navigation guidance or travel management, is highly dependent on the set of features implemented and the application quality. Information about the acceptance can be gained quickly by collecting user feedback like explicit textual reviews given by the application users or their implicitly given usage data. Considering an approach that bases on developing a minimal set of functions in order to realize a minimal viable product (MVP), it is possible to place a product with a short time to market. In this paper the Opti4Apps approach is presented. It aims at a focused quality assurance as part of the MVP development, which enables and expands the benefits of MVP by providing a semi-automated feedback elicitation, analysis and processing framework. The Opti4Apps process adjusts to mobile development habits including an additional automated feedback and usage data processing infrastructure.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

The Web-based Subjective Quality Assessment of an Adaptive Image Compression Plug-in

Authors:

Maria Laura Mele, Damon Millar and Christiaan Erik Rijnders

Abstract: Images are a key element for conveying information about visual systems. However, image-based representation and communication require large information bandwidth. Image compression is currently the leading methodology for reducing bandwidth/load problems thus improving User Experience. Synthetic objective metrics are often used to assess the quality of image compression models, but they often do not reliably predict subjective ratings. This work shows the end-users’ quality evaluation of a new compression plug-in fully compliant with all on-going image formats. The subjective quality assessment of jpeg pictures compressed by the plug-in followed a new Web-based Single Stimulus Continuous Quality Scale method, whose validity and reliability have been described in a previously published study. The results of this study show that pictures compressed by the proposed adaptive image compression plug-in have a 55% compression gain compared to jpeg images compressed by Facebook Mobile, with no loss in perceived image quality.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

A New 2D Interaction-based Method for the Behavioral Analysis of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living

Authors:

Eulalie Verhulst, Déborah Foloppe, Paul Richard, Frédéric Banville and Philippe Allain

Abstract: In neuropsychology, many computerized solutions have been proposed in order to assess patients’ functioning in activities of daily living, via realistic interactive simulation. In this context, most developed systems are based on simple devices, real time 2D interaction, and monoscopic 3D computer graphics environment. Behavioral analysis has drawn the interest of many domains, such as neuropsychology, ergonomics, web design, or virtual reality. However, advances on this topic remains fragmented in their respective areas. Thus, in computerized solutions applied to neuropsychology, the behavioral analysis does not take into account the data from interaction. The potential interest of computerized solutions is hence underexploited. In this paper, we propose a transdisciplinary solution, based on a finer analysis of 2D interaction data, such as stop duration. This method could reveal interesting aspects of users’ behaviors.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Feature Extraction based on Touch Interaction Data in Virtual Reality-based IADL for Characterization of Mild Cognitive Impairment

Authors:

Yuki Kubota, Takehiko Yamaguchi, Takuya Maeta, Yosuke Okada, Yoshihito Miura, Niken Prasasti Martono, Hayato Ohwada and Giovannetti Tania

Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore the feature pattern of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in Virtual Reality based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (VR-IADL) which runs on a tablet PC as well as requires participants a touch interaction to complete the task. Twelve participants (MCI: 4, history of MCI: 2, healthy elderly: 6) were recruited from the region of Philadelphia in USA to perform a VR-IADL task. We found that Non Touch Time (NTT) which is time interval during not touching screen on tablet was longer than that of MCI patients as well as healthy older adults with having history of MCI. Several types of feature patterns were extracted from the NTT such as … Based on the feature pattern, Support Vector Machine (SVM) was performed to calculate the accuracy of the feature patter for characterization of MCI. As the result, the identification rate was 75%.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Predictive Cognitive Modelling of Applications

Authors:

Sabine Prezenski, Dominik Bruechner and Nele Russwinkel

Abstract: This paper argues that important usability aspects of mobile applications can be automatically evaluated using computational cognitive models based on the cognitive architecture ACT-R. A tool incorporating cognitive models for specific tasks, users, applications and usability aspects is proposed. Explanations provided by the tool for usability flaws are based on simulations of cognitive mechanisms. A use-case of the tool is introduced, which is based on an ACT-R model that simulates how users search and select a specific target in a hierarchical android application and predicts efficiency and learnability for average users. The model has been empirically validated in four studies with two different applications. To fully automate the usability evaluation of the use-case, two basic requirements need to be fulfilled. First, the application and the cognitive model have to be connected. A tool called ACT-Droid acts as an interface between the Android application and the cognitive model. Second, the models knowledge of the world, which is application specific, has to be provided automatically by using an automated user interface analysation approach. Therefore, the open-source tool AppCrawler was extended to allow the extraction of the required information.